On Wednesday, March 4, 1863 a reinforced Union infantry brigade left Franklin, Tennessee to reconnoiter* southward toward Columbia. Near Spring Hill the Union brigade attacked a Confederate Army force composed of two regiments.
The Federals were repelled, but Confederate General Earl Van Dorn seized the initiative. On the following day Van Dorn ordered a frontal attack, while General Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry swept around the left flank and into the rear of the Union force.
After three attempts, characterized by hard fighting, Jackson carried the Union hilltop position as Forrest blocked the road to Nashville and captured the Federals’ wagon train. Out of ammunition and surrounded, the Federal commander had no alternative but to surrender. Union influence in Middle Tennessee subsided for a while.