In the 1920s, Aurora Orozco crossed over from Mexico to Texas — a child of African descent who spoke not a word of English. She was an uneasy transplant.

Many years later, in an essay published in 1999, she recalled attitudes towards students who were caught speaking Spanish in school: "My teacher, Mrs. White, would make me stay after class. With a red rubber band, she would hit my poor hands until they nearly bled."

Paul Flahive / Texas Public Radio

This week on Fronteras: 

--A look at how undocumented immigrants without social security numbers pay taxes, and why the IRS doesn’t disclose their identities.

--A legal border crossing in Texas stimulates economies and relations on both sides as it celebrates the second anniversary of its opening.

--Mexican teachers experience Houston classrooms in an international, cultural exchange program.

--A unique protest in support of an arrested Cuban artist brings museums together in solidarity.

The Fences Where Spain And Africa Meet

Apr 16, 2015

On a rocky beach in North Africa, a chain-link fence juts out into the Mediterranean Sea.

This is one of Africa's two land borders with Europe, at two Spanish cities on the African continent. Ceuta and Melilla are Spanish soil — and thus part of the European Union — separated from the rest of Europe by the Mediterranean, and separated from the rest of Africa by huge fences.

Ryan E. Poppe

The Texas Senate is considering  a "sanctuary city” bill that would encourage local law enforcement to take a more active role in checking the immigration status for people they come in contact with.    The San Antonio Police Department, and others across Texas,  have organized to fight the bill saying it would interfere with public safety.

Marco Rubio, the charismatic, Hispanic, young (and even younger-looking) freshman senator from Florida is launching his campaign for the White House Monday in Miami.

Rubio, 43, will be entering a growing field of candidates. Right now, he's considered a second-tier candidate, polling behind Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker and former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, the man Rubio has called a mentor.

That could change once he gets in. Rubio's advisers believe he has a path to the nomination, with assets few other candidates can match.